Embedded hardware / software components are the core of almost any "smart" machine, car, tool, or even appliance. Therefore the dependability of such systems depends critically on the performance and reliability of their electronic sub-systems. Traditionally, software reliability used to be the main issue, followed by electric switches, plugs and sockets. Large-scale integrated circuits have become a matter of concern only recently, since ICs fabricated in nano-technologies exhibit a vulnerability to fault effects that range from transient faults caused by particle radiation to pre-mature wear-out due to the degradation of interconnects and active devices. The tutorial gives and introduction to fault effects with an emphasis on transient and permanent hardware faults and shows some basic concepts of fault compensation and repair.